Speech Acts: Constative and Performatives
Linguist J. L. Austin divides speech in two categories: Constatives and Performatives. Constatives are sentences that describe something as true or false while Performatives are sentences that dennote an action, are meant to inspire actions. When words themselves are actions (performatives) are known as Speech Acts.
Speech Acts include: ordering, warning, promising, apologising, warning, christening, marrying, sentencing ...
Performatives depend on Felicity conditions
- should have proper authority
- should be understood
- should be clear
- should be able to be executed